Calvary Road Baptist Church

“A Survey Of Satanic & Demonic Warfare In Judges”


How do you defeat a deadly adversary bent on the destruction of you, your loved ones, your family, your circle of friends, your Church, and your nation? My suggestion is to examine your enemy’s strategy and tactics in the past, taking special note of how the enemy’s efforts were thwarted in the past and what mistakes were made that enabled the enemy to prevail in the past.

The book of Genesis records the broadening of the Satanic and Demonic warfare from the incorporeal realm, from being a war between God and angels that followed Lucifer’s rebellion against Him, into the human sphere, with humanity as a race and human beings as individuals being targets. The temptation of Eve by the serpent was the initial salvo against the human race. Satan opened a second front against God after achieving no success against Him beyond the enticement of one-third the host of heaven to turn against the invincible God.[1]

Genesis also records God’s promise to remedy the problem by His determination to crush the head of the serpent that bruises the heel of the seed of the woman, as well as His selection of Abraham as the patriarch of a people through whom He would send the Savior. Of course, there was the matter of the spiritual assault on the human race to produce hybrid offspring and the judgment of the Flood along the way.[2] Was the entire human race given over to demonic subjugation through idolatry and despotism? Yes. But God called out a people; a covenant people descended from Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob. Through His covenant people, He would provide redemption and victory in the spiritual conflict. But first, He moved Jacob’s family into the den of iniquity, the hotbed of idolatry, the place where Satan and his minions held sway, Egypt.

Examining the book of Exodus, we learned that Jacob’s family had grown to be a nation over four centuries and had also been enslaved by that idolatrous nation. The Devil worked to slay the newborn baby boys of the Israelites, but God touched the hearts of the midwives to reduce their losses.[3] In a strong touch of irony, God placed the Jewish baby Moses into the household of Pharaoh, under the care of Pharaoh’s daughter, who employed Moses’ mother to be the child’s nurse.[4] God would someday use that baby to deliver His people from Egyptian bondage to the doorstep of the Promised Land.

Through the rest of the book of Exodus, we learn of Moses’ growth to adulthood, the futility of his misguided effort to rescue a single Jewish man from an Egyptian, his flight to the Midian desert where the great I AM revealed Himself to Moses from a burning bush, and his subsequent assignment to return to Egypt to lead his people. Once Moses returned to Egypt, a great battle took place. Not that there was any doubt about the outcome. But the battle was great in terms of the overwhelming defeat of Egypt’s gods in a series of (for them) catastrophic plagues designed to showcase the power and might of the God of Israel and the impotence of Egypt’s gods.

What lay back of the ten plagues was a more significant demonstration, the tremendous power of Almighty God to unleash a staggering defeat on the demonic forces behind the idols that were thoroughly entrenched in Egypt, Egypt’s institutions, and Egypt’s culture. The defeat was complete, with Israel’s departure from Egypt through the parted waters of the Red Sea an extraordinary public humiliation of Egypt’s gods.[5]

Exodus also records the giving of the Law to Moses atop Mount Sinai and the relapse of the people into idolatry with Aaron, Moses’ brother, and Israel’s first high priest.[6] As the unfolding drama of redemption plays out in Scripture, we see that vigilance is the price of liberty, and so long as they are not yet consigned to the lake of fire, the supernatural enemies are relentless.[7]

The book of Leviticus mainly deals with the regularization of Israel’s life as the people of God. Their daily life was outlined. Their calendar for worship on a weekly and annualized basis was set forth. The system of sacrifices and offerings was prescribed with precision and detail. The role of the priests was shown. The tabernacle and furnishings were described and constructed. And above all, idolatry in all its forms and practices was prohibited as a danger to the welfare of the people.

In the book of Numbers is recorded the census of the people, their incessant murmuring, the rebellion of several notable leaders, and the attack against the people by the prophet Balaam. It is in Numbers that we are shown the linkage of spiritual warfare to a spirit of rebellion, the linkage of spiritual vulnerability to a murmuring and complaining disposition, and the linkage of spiritual assault to sexual promiscuity. The impact of demons on someone is sometimes displayed by that individual’s rebellious attitude, by that person’s murmuring and complaining disposition, and by that person’s susceptibility to involvement in sexual sinning. The Devil and his minions are determined to destroy you and everyone connected to you.

In the book of Deuteronomy, we see a restatement of the Law, a strong emphasis on parental training of children, and a recommitment to the Mosaic Covenant in Moses’ three discourses. We also noted that Deuteronomy was the book the Savior quoted from to resist the Devil’s temptations during His forty days in the wilderness following His baptism.[8] Also, recall that necromancy, or dealings with the spirits of the dead, was prohibited in Deuteronomy.

After the three sermons delivered by Moses, a dire warning was issued in the second to last chapter of the book. It is found in a poem of Moses in Deuteronomy 32.1-43. In verses 12 to 39, Moses alerted his audience to the spiritual dangers and consequences of unfaithfulness to the only true God.

The scope of the five books of Moses begins with the beginning of history and culminates on the Eastern bank of the Jordan River and the death of Moses. Then comes the book of Joshua, recording the conquest of the Promised Land after the miraculous crossing of the river and the walls of Jericho coming down. Rahab’s faith resulted in her deliverance. The Gibeonites’ trickery resulted in their enslavement. The lust of Achan resulted in his and his children’s deaths, as well as the loss of thirty-six men fighting against Ai because of Achan’s greed.

The land was divided, conquered, and settled by the Israelites, but without completely removing the Canaanites. The remaining Canaanite influence in the land degraded the Jewish people. In the book of Joshua, cities were assigned as venues of refuge, and Levitical cities were designated. But little is found in the book of Joshua concerning spiritual influence and warfare until the final two chapters.

In chapter twenty-three, Joshua gathered Israel’s leaders and warned them about the dangers of idolatry and the consequences of unfaithfulness toward God. In chapter twenty-four, Joshua used his final address to his people to alert the entire population. His sobering message from the LORD was a reminder that father Abraham had served other gods, that God separated between the Jewish people and the Egyptians, that God did not listen to Balaam’s efforts to curse them, and that He is a holy God.

Of course, the implication was that God did those things to liberate His covenant people from idolatry and the influences that would distract them from worshiping and serving the true God who had redeemed them from Egypt. Joshua concluded his warning to the people by declaring his and his household’s intention to serve the LORD with the memorable declaration, 

“And if it seem evil unto you to serve the LORD, choose you this day whom ye will serve; whether the gods which your fathers served that were on the other side of the flood, or the gods of the Amorites, in whose land ye dwell: but as for me and my house, we will serve the LORD.”[9] 

This brings us to the book of Judges. I plan to introduce you to the book of Judges by relying heavily on comments written by F. Duane Lindsey.[10] Then I will review a simple outline of Judges.[11] I will conclude with attention to the verses in Judges that mention the spiritual warfare the people of Israel were warned about and involved in: 


Title and Place in the Canon. The English title “The Book of Judges” can be traced back through the Latin (Liber Judicum) and the Greek Septuagint (Kritai, “Judges”) to the Hebrew soptim (“judges”). The title is appropriate as long as the English concept of legal arbitration is expanded to general administrative authority including military deliverance from Israel’s enemies.

In the English Bible the Book of Judges is found in those books popularly classified as “the historical books.” In the Hebrew Bible it is placed in the division of “the Prophets” (preceded by “the Law” and followed by “the Writings”), specifically “the former Prophets” containing Joshua, Judges, Samuel, and Kings. 

Authorship and Date of Writing. Internal evidence in the Book of Judges suggests that it was written during the early days of the monarchy - after the coronation of Saul (1051 B.C.) but before the conquest of Jerusalem by David (1004 B.C.). The following three facts support this suggestion: (1) The stylistic motto - “in those days Israel had no king” - repeated toward the end of the book (17:6; 18:1; 19:1; 21:25) looks backward from a period when Israel did have a king. (2) The statement about Jerusalem that “to this day the Jebusites live there” (1:21) is most clearly explained as written before David’s conquest of the city (cf. 2 Sam. 5:6-7). (3) The reference to Canaanites in Gezer suggests a date before the time the Egyptians gave that city to Solomon’s Egyptian wife as a wedding present (cf. 1 Kings 9:16).

Though there is no internal evidence identifying the author of Judges, the Talmud (Tractate Baba Bathra 14b) ascribes to Samuel the Books of Judges, Ruth, and Samuel. Though difficult to substantiate, identifying Samuel as the author of Judges harmonizes with the internal evidence mentioned above and the known fact that Samuel was a writer (1 Sam. 10:25). Judges thus appears to have been written between about 1040 and 1020 B.C. Earlier sources, both written and oral, were no doubt used by the inspired author who chronicled this theologically selective history of Israel from the death of Joshua to the rise of the monarchy. 

Chronology of the Period of the Judges. Scholars agree that the period of the Judges began with the death of Joshua and ended with the coronation of Saul and the beginning of the monarchy. But scholars differ on how much time elapsed between these two events. Since most scholars agree that the monarchy began under Saul in 1051 B.C., the debate centers on the date of Joshua’s death. The problem concerns particularly the date of the Exodus under Moses which many conservative scholars place at 1446 B.C. while most liberal scholars maintain a later date (ca. 1280/60 B.C.). The conservative argument rests on the literal use of the numbers recorded in 1 Kings 6:1 and Judges 11:26. (See the Introduction to the Book of Ex. for a discussion of the date of the Exodus.) Scholars who follow the later date of the Exodus consequently date the period of the Judges from about 1220 to 1050 B.C., whereas many who accept the early date of the Exodus say the period of the Judges began about 1390-1350 B.C. and ended about 1050 B.C.

The evidence for beginning the period of the Judges about 1350 B.C. is strong (cf. Eugene H. Merrill, “Paul’s Use of ‘About 450 Years’ in Acts 13:20,” Bibliotheca Sacra 138. July-September 1981:249-50). The elders who outlived Joshua (Josh. 24:31; Jud. 2:7) would have been no more than 20 years of age in 1444 B.C. when the spies entered the land (Num. 13:2; 14:29), two years after the Exodus. If they lived to about the age of 110 (Joshua’s age at his death; Josh. 24:29), the oldest of them would have died about 1354 B.C. (Having been born in 1464 B.C. or later, and living no more than 110 years of age would date their deaths at 1354 B.C.) The idolatry leading to the first oppression (that by Cushan­ Rishathaim, Jud. 3:8) seems to have begun after these elders died (2:7).

The next datable event recorded in Judges was the occupation of Gilead by the Ammonites. Jephthah said this took place 300 years (11:26) after the Israelite occupation of Transjordan (ca. 1406 B.C.). Thus 1106 B.C. marked either the beginning of Jephthah’s judgeship (probably) or the beginning of the Ammonite invasion 18 years earlier (possibly). The dates of the judgeship of Samson (ca. 1105-1085 B.C.) and the leadership of Eli (ca. 1144-1104 B.C.), and Samuel (ca. 1104-1020 B.C.), can be reconstructed fairly accurately (with Samson’s and Samuel’s years overlapping) from the rather certain dates of Saul’s reign (Merrill, pp. 250-2).

Insufficient evidence is available to support clearly any of the conflicting proposals regarding the exact dates for most of the other judges. Contrast, for example, the dates set forth by J. Barton Payne, “Chronology of the Old Testament,” Zondervan Pictorial Encyclopedia of the Bible. Grand Rapids: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., 1975, 1:829-45; Merrill F. Unger, Archaeology and the Old Testament. Grand Rapids: Zondervan Publishing House, 1954, pp. 158-87; John C. Whitcomb, Jr., “Chart of Old Testament Patriarchs and Judges,” Study­Graph, 3rd rev. ed. Chicago: Moody Press, 1968; and Leon J. Wood, Distressing Days of the Judges, pp. 10-21, 303-4, 341-2, 409-11.

Adding the length of the rule of each judge with its preceding oppression comes to 410 years (if the Philistine oppression and the judging by Samson are reckoned independently), a period too extended to fit the time between Joshua and Saul. Therefore scholars agree that the periods of some oppressions and judgeships overlapped: Such an overlapping of judges is to be expected since many (if not all) of the judges probably ruled in geographically limited portions of Israel. 

Historical and Theological Setting. Historically the Book of Judges is the sequel to the Book of Joshua. The two books are linked together by the repeated record of Joshua’s death (Jud. 2:6-9; cf. Josh. 24:29-31). Joshua’s military achievements “broke the back” of the Canaanite military coalition throughout the land (Josh. 11:16-23) but left large areas yet to be possessed by the individual tribes (Josh. 13:1; Jud. 1:2-36). Canaanite enclaves raised their heads time and again during the period of the Judges (4:2). The book not only looks back to Joshua’s victories but also looks forward to the establishment of the monarchy in Israel (cf. 17:6; 18:1; 19:1; 21:25; also cf. 8:23 with 1 Sam. 8:7; 12:12).

Theologically the period of the Judges formed a transition between Yahweh’s mediatorial activity through Moses and Joshua and His mediatorial rule through the anointed kings of the monarchy. During the period of the Judges, Yahweh raised up His chosen deliverers whom He anointed with His Spirit to rescue His people Israel from their enemies. It seems ironic that Yahweh had previously given His people into the hands of these enemies as punishment for their sins (cf. comments on Jud. 3:1-6). 

The Function of the Judges. The Hebrew word sopet (“judge, deliverer”) has a wider connotation than the English word “judge.” It was a general term for leadership combining the executive (including military) and judicial aspects of governing. Thus the judges of Israel were primarily military and civil leaders, with strictly judicial functions included as appropriate (cf. 4:5). 

Purpose and Theme. The purpose of the Book of Judges was to demonstrate divine judgment on Israel’s apostasy. More particularly the book recorded Israel’s disobedience to Yahweh’s kingship as mediated through her sovereignly appointed and Spirit-empowered leaders, and the subsequent need for a centralized hereditary kingship as the means through which Yahweh would continue to exercise His kingship over the nation Israel. Israel’s disobedience to Yahweh and her worship of Canaanite gods resulted in her failure to experience divine blessing and the full conquest of her enemies (cf. 3:1-6). The Canaanite influence in moral and social areas led to Israelite apostasy and anarchy, demonstrating the need for a centralized hereditary monarchy in Israel. 

2A.   Next, OUTLINE 

I. Prologue: Causes Introducing the Days of the Judges (1:1-2:5)

A. The political-military background-the partial conquest of Canaan by Israel (chap. 1)

1. The success of Judah and Simeon in conquering southern Canaan (1:1-20)

2. The failure of Benjamin to displace the Jebusites (1:21)

3, The partial success of the house of Joseph in occupying central Canaan (1:22-29)

4. The failure of Israelite tribes in northern Canaan (1:30-33)

5. The confinement of Dan to the hill country by the Amorites (1:34-36)

B. The religious-spiritual background-the covenant of the Lord broken by Israel (2:1-5)

1. The pronouncement by the Angel of the Lord (2:1-3)

2. The response by the people of Israel (2:4-5)

II. Documentary: Cases Exhibiting the Deeds of the Judges (2:6-16:31)

A. The introduction to the history of the judges (2:6-3:6)

1. A summary of the passing of Joshua (2:6-10)

2. The pattern of the period of the Judges (2:11-19)

3. The results of the broken covenant (2:20-23)

4. The identification of the remaining nations (3:1-6)

B. The description of the oppressions and deliverances (3:7-16:31)

1. The deliverance by Othniel from the oppression of Cushan-Rishathaim (3:7-11)

2. The deliverance by Ehud from the oppression of Eglon (3:12-30)

3. The deliverance by Shamgar from the oppression of the Philistines (3:31)

4. The deliverance by Deborah and Barak from the oppression of the Canaanites (chaps. 4-5)

5. The deliverance by Gideon from the oppression of the Midianites (6:1-8:32)

6. The judgeships of Tola and Jair following the usurpation of Abimelech (8:33-10:5)

7. The deliverance by Jephthah from the oppression of the Ammonites (10:6-12:7)

8. The judgeships of Ibzan, Elon, and Abdon (12:8-15)

9. The deliverance by Samson from the oppression of the Philistines (chaps. 13-16)

III.     Epilogue: Conditions Illustrating the Days of the Judges (chaps. 17-21)

A. Religious apostasy: The idolatry of Micah and the migration of the Danites (chaps. 17-18)

1. The idolatry of Micah the Ephraimite (chap. 17)

2. The migration of the Danites to the north (chap. 18)

B. Moral degradation: The atrocity of Gibeah and the war with the Benjamites (chaps. 19-21)

1. The atrocity against the concubine of the Levite (chap. 19)

2. The war against the tribe of Benjamin (chap. 20)

3. The preservation of the tribe of Benjamin (21:1-24)

4. The characteristics of the period of the Judges (21:25) 


Judges 2.3:

“Wherefore I also said, I will not drive them out from before you; but they shall be as thorns in your sides, and their gods shall be a snare unto you.” 

This verse was when an angel of the LORD rebuked the Israelites for their failure to comply with God’s directive to drive the Canaanites from the land. As a result of the Israelite’s incomplete obedience, the Canaanites were predicted to be thorns in their sides, with their false gods being a snare to the people. 

Judges 2.11-12:     

11 And the children of Israel did evil in the sight of the LORD, and served Baalim:

12 And they forsook the LORD God of their fathers, which brought them out of the land of Egypt, and followed other gods, of the gods of the people that were round about them, and bowed themselves unto them, and provoked the LORD to anger.” 

This is the first time in God’s Word we see the word Baalim, a plural term employed to denote all false deities.[12] What the angel predicted in Judges 2.3 was soon fulfilled. 

Judges 2.17:

“And yet they would not hearken unto their judges, but they went a whoring after other gods, and bowed themselves unto them: they turned quickly out of the way which their fathers walked in, obeying the commandments of the LORD; but they did not so. 

Note the phrase “they went a whoring after other gods.” Literal prostitution was frequently associated with the worship of Baal and Astarte.[13] We will find that apostasy from the worship of the true God not unusually involves some form of sexual promiscuity. 

Judges 2.19:

“And it came to pass, when the judge was dead, that they returned, and corrupted themselves more than their fathers, in following other gods to serve them, and to bow down unto them; they ceased not from their own doings, nor from their stubborn way.” 

Is it so unusual that following the death of a strong spiritual leader, that those who yielded to the strength of one person’s personality without any allegiance to God exhibited greater sinfulness following that man’s death? It happens when the wicked are more concerned with the opinion of a strong spiritual leader than with the opinion of God. 

Judges 3.6-7:     

6 And they took their daughters to be their wives, and gave their daughters to their sons, and served their gods.

7 And the children of Israel did evil in the sight of the LORD, and forgat the LORD their God, and served Baalim and the groves. 

Groves are referred to in Exodus 34.13 and in Deuteronomy 7.5 and 12.3, but here for the first time in Judges. In each of these verses, the Hebrew word is hrva 'asherah, and refers to the Phoenician goddess of nature, the Egyptian goddess Astarte.

Look this goddess up on the Internet. You will discern, by the apparent emphasis on the sexuality of the statues, that such figurines were as much pornography to the Egyptians, Canaanites, and Phoenicians as were statues of Athena and Aphrodite to the Greeks.

Do you think there is no connection between pornographic imagery and idolatry, and demonic influences? Think again. 

Judges 5.8:

“They chose new gods; then was war in the gates: was there a shield or spear seen among forty thousand in Israel?” 

In Judges chapter 4, we learn that God raised up Deborah to be Israel’s only woman judge. It is also the chapter where Jael drove a tent spike through Sisera’s head after feeding him and while he was sleeping. In Judges 5, Deborah sings a song of praise to the LORD while castigating her countrymen for choosing new gods. One does not choose new gods. God does the choosing. 

Judges 8.21 & 26:    

21 Then Zebah and Zalmunna said, Rise thou, and fall upon us: for as the man is, so is his strength. And Gideon arose, and slew Zebah and Zalmunna, and took away the ornaments that were on their camels’ necks. 

26 And the weight of the golden earrings that he requested was a thousand and seven hundred shekels of gold; beside ornaments, and collars, and purple raiment that was on the kings of Midian, and beside the chains that were about their camels’ necks. 

Notice the word “ornaments” in these two verses. It refers to crescent-shaped gold or silver jewelry worn by men and women around their necks that were also hung from their camels’ necks. Guess where the custom prevails to this day? Yes, the Arabian peninsula.[14] These ornaments were moon goddess bling. 

Judges 9.23:

“Then God sent an evil spirit between Abimelech and the men of Shechem; and the men of Shechem dealt treacherously with Abimelech.” 

This is a direct reference to a demon. God knew the evil demon would produce discord and strife, so He sent the demon as punishment for the wickedness of Abimelech and the people of Shechem.[15] 

Judges 10.6:

“And the children of Israel did evil again in the sight of the LORD, and served Baalim, and Ashtaroth, and the gods of Syria, and the gods of Zidon, and the gods of Moab, and the gods of the children of Ammon, and the gods of the Philistines, and forsook the LORD, and served not him.” 

It is evil to forsake the LORD and not serve Him. To not serve God is wrong. To serve false gods, the gods of those who are not the God of Christian people is wicked. The gods of Syria, Zidon, Moab, Ammon, and the Philistines are fake gods, backed by demons, foul spirits, evil minions of Satan. 

Judges 10.13-14:    

13 Yet ye have forsaken me, and served other gods: wherefore I will deliver you no more.

14 Go and cry unto the gods which ye have chosen; let them deliver you in the time of your tribulation. 

Just as no right-thinking mother or father ignores the folly of rescuing a wicked child from the consequences of his or her wrongdoing, so the God of Israel refuses to rescue an unrepentant people from the consequences of their apostasy. 

Judges 10.16:          

“And they put away the strange gods from among them, and served the LORD: and his soul was grieved for the misery of Israel.” 

“This divine threat had its proper effect. The Israelites confessed their sins, submitted thoroughly to the chastisement of God, and simply prayed for salvation; nor did they content themselves with merely promising, they put away the strange gods and served Jehovah.”[16] 

Judges 17.3-5:

3 And when he had restored the eleven hundred shekels of silver to his mother, his mother said, I had wholly dedicated the silver unto the LORD from my hand for my son, to make a graven image and a molten image: now therefore I will restore it unto thee.

4 Yet he restored the money unto his mother; and his mother took two hundred shekels of silver, and gave them to the founder, who made thereof a graven image and a molten image: and they were in the house of Micah.

5 And the man Micah had an house of gods, and made an ephod, and teraphim, and consecrated one of his sons, who became his priest. 

This episode from Israel’s history shows the utter folly of idolatry. We learn in verse 2 that he stole from his mother. When he admits to his theft, she blesses his theft! The passage we have just read shows this foolish woman accommodating her idolatrous son, his fabrication of false gods, and making his son a priest.

This type of lunacy cannot exist apart from a mother who has no moral moorings who thinks nothing of her son’s mistreatment of her by theft. From mother to son to grandson, it only gets worse. 

Judges 18.14, 17, 20, 24, 30, 31:

14 Then answered the five men that went to spy out the country of Laish, and said unto their brethren, Do ye know that there is in these houses an ephod, and teraphim, and a graven image, and a molten image? now therefore consider what ye have to do. 

17 And the five men that went to spy out the land went up, and came in thither, and took the graven image, and the ephod, and the teraphim, and the molten image: and the priest stood in the entering of the gate with the six hundred men that were appointed with weapons of war. 

20 And the priest’s heart was glad, and he took the ephod, and the teraphim, and the graven image, and went in the midst of the people. 

24 And he said, Ye have taken away my gods which I made, and the priest, and ye are gone away: and what have I more? and what is this that ye say unto me, What aileth thee? 

30 And the children of Dan set up the graven image: and Jonathan, the son of Gershom, the son of Manasseh, he and his sons were priests to the tribe of Dan until the day of the captivity of the land. 

31 And they set them up Micah’s graven image, which he made, all the time that the house of God was in Shiloh. 

If you think Micah’s interaction with his foolish mother and establishing his son as a priest was bizarre, in chapter 17, wait until you read the insanity of chapter 18. I have only set before you the verses mentioning an ephod, a teraphim, a graven image, a molten image, and gods.

What is at least one takeaway from this slide into religious apostasy from the worship of the one true and living God? Inconsistent, irrational, and immoral behavior. And is this not precisely what the Apostle Paul identified as the consequence of suppressing the knowledge of God, Romans 1.28: 

“And even as they did not like to retain God in their knowledge, God gave them over to a reprobate mind, to do those things which are not convenient.” 

One of the memorable verses in the book of Judges is Judges 17.6: 

“In those days there was no king in Israel, but every man did that which was right in his own eyes.” 

Is it so much different in our day? People do not so much concern themselves with what is right in the sight of God but with what seems right in their minds.

Would this not suggest we should pay particular attention to a person’s vulnerability to spiritual assault that arises from our culture being given over to doing whatever people want to do?

The war is real.

Casualties are high.

The enemy is intelligent and utterly ruthless.


[1] Revelation 12.4

[2] Genesis 6.3-4; 7

[3] Exodus 1.15-22

[4] Exodus 2.1-10

[5] An explanation of this is provided by G. M. Matheny in his extraordinary book Exodus: The Route, Sea Crossing, God’s Mountain, (Xulon Press, 2014), pages 104-141.

[6] Exodus 32

[7] Matthew 25.41; Jude 6

[8] Deuteronomy 6.13, 16; 8.3; 10.20; Matthew 4.1-10; Luke 4.1-13

[9] Joshua 24.15

[10] John F. Walvoord & Roy B. Zuck, General Editors, The Bible Knowledge Commentary: Old Testament, (Colorado Springs, CO: David C. Cook, 1985), pages 373-375.

[11] Ibid., pages 375-376.

[12] C. F. Keil & F. Delitzsch, Commentary On The Old Testament, Vol 2, (Peabody, MA: reprinted by Hendrickson Publishers, Inc., 1996), page 196.

[13] See Keil & Delitzsch, vol 1, page 479.

[14] Keil & Delitzsch, vol 2, page 257.

[15] Ibid., page 264.

[16] Ibid., page 272.

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